The human body is amazingly resilient and can take a lot of abuse. But sooner or later indigestion affects us all. Eating a Big Mac and fries for lunch, pepperoni pizza for dinner, and a pint of ice cream for dessert won’t kill you in the short term. But a poor diet laden with saturated fat and little or no fiber can certainly wreak havoc on your digestive system and overall health. Unfortunately, there are plenty of diseases associated with poor nutrition and digestion that take years to rear their ugly head.
Today you will learn . . .
- How to Combat Indigestion, Heartburn, Gas, Bloating & Stomach Pain
- Why Typical Indigestion Medications are Harmful, Making Matters Worse
- What You Can Do to Improve Digestion for Long Term Health
- When Poor Digestion Might Cause Numerous Health Problems
It’s estimated that some form of digestive disorder affects more than 100 million Americans.1 For some people, it’s a temporary case of dyspepsia, or indigestion, that may cause a sleepless night or a missed day of work. For others, dyspepsia turns into a chronic state of discomfort and pain that can eventually result in a serious illness.
The foundation of good health & the root cause of disease
Nutrition, digestion, absorption, and bacterial balance all play significant roles in the health of your gastrointestinal tract—and in your overall health. Efficient absorption of the nutrients in the food you eat is at the foundation of good health. According to Deepak Chopra, M.D., digestion allows the nutrients you ingest to be broken down and “then combined again in such a way as to re-create every cell, every organ, every tissue of the human body.”2
Conversely, many health practitioners believe that poor digestion is the root cause of most disease. Although it can take years for the consequences of poor digestion to manifest in serious illness, individuals may complain in the interim of a variety of health complaints including joint pain, headache, fatigue, indigestion, heartburn, or stomach problems.3
What is dyspepsia?
Dyspepsia is a complex set of symptoms, rather than an indication of a specific disease. It is the medical term used for indigestion … and indigestion is the term used to describe pain and discomfort in the upper abdomen or chest that usually develops after a meal. It may also be accompanied by nausea, abdominal bloating, belching, or vomiting.
Dyspepsia may be caused by disease or Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. It can also be the result of eating too much or too fast—especially when you’re feeling stressed—and high-fat foods. Smoking, drinking too much alcohol, using medications that irritate the stomach lining (such as anti-inflammatory drugs), fatigue, and chronic stress can also cause indigestion, or make it worse. Additionally, exercising with a full stomach may cause indigestion so try to plan your workout before a meal or at least an hour afterward.
Some people have persistent indigestion that is unrelated to any of these factors. This type of indigestion—called functional or non-ulcer dyspepsia—may be caused by a problem in the muscular squeezing action of the stomach (motility), or by low stomach acid or low bile flow.
Addison’s disease, asthma, celiac disease, chronic auto-immune disorders, depression, eczema, gallstones, gastric cancer, gastritis, hepatitis, osteoporosis, psoriasis, acne roseola, colitis, hair loss, and rheumatoid arthritis are just some of the disorders that have been associated with poor stomach acid output.4
What are the symptoms of dyspepsia?
Depending on the cause, symptoms may occur for a short time only, they may return intermittently, or they may be regular and prolonged:
- Pain, which may be in the upper part of the abdomen or the chest (this may not always be related to eating)
- Heartburn, a burning pain caused by reflux (regurgitation) of the stomach’s contents back up the esophagus
- Nausea and vomiting
- Flatulence, burping or belching
- Early feeling of satiation, loss of appetite
- Intolerance of eating fat
- Irregular bowel movements
- Bad breath
Everyone experiences some of these symptoms from time to time. But when a digestive disorder becomes chronic, it can interfere with the mere joy of eating. It can also make your life so miserable that it interferes with normal, every-day activity. If the symptoms continue for an extended period of time, they can result in other health problems. It makes sense—if you have a digestive disorder you’re not absorbing and assimilating nutrients … which means you’re not getting adequate protein, fats, minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants … which means your body can not sustain optimal health—and ultimately, your body ages more quickly.
Low stomach acid
Technically known as hydrochloric acid, stomach acid is essential for proper functioning of the digestive system. But an estimated 30% of North Americans have low stomach acid—which helps explain the huge numbers of people suffering from dyspepsia. Natural aging, a poor diet, chronic use of certain medications, and past infection with the Helicobacter pylori bacteria can impair the stomach’s ability to produce acid. (This is actually a case of “the chicken or the egg.” Are individuals susceptible to H. pylori because of low stomach acid, or does the bacteria cause the low stomach acid?)
In their book, Why Stomach Acid Is Good For You: Natural Relief for Heartburn, Indigestion, Reflux & GERD. (M. Evans & Co; 2001), Jonathan Wright, M.D., and Lane Lenard, Ph.D., write, “After 30, 40, or more years of digesting or attempting to digest everything we put in our stomachs—not just food, which the stomach is designed to handle, but also refined sugar, caffeine, distilled alcohol, grease and oxidized oils, fluoride and chlorine from water, chemical flavorings and colorings, pesticides, herbicides—you get the idea. No? Why would anyone except an antacid salesman or the average gastroenterologist imagine that our stomachs would make more acid, more pepsin, and digest things more efficiently as we get older? Common sense says that after 30 or 40 years, the stomach slows down, just like the rest of us [our body], and makes less acid, less pepsin, and digests things less efficiently.”
In fact, the authors add that if over-acidity were the cause of ulcers and dyspepsia, then teenagers who secrete plenty of hydrochloric acid would suffer from indigestion problems a lot more than their grandparents! “So why,” they ask, “would we want to take antacids or acid blockers when our stomachs are weak and not digesting adequately already?”
More Americans are hospitalized for digestive disorders than for any other type of illness
The answer seems plain and simple: most people want symptom relief and they get it by taking popular over-the counter antacids and other prescription drugs. But there’s a price to pay, which we’ll discuss in a minute. But first, it’s important to know that studies show that production of stomach acid decreases with age.
- At the Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Japan, researchers found that gastric acid decreases with age in older people who have H. pylori.6
- An American study found that more than 30% of men and women over 60 years of age suffer from atrophic gastritis: a condition in which there is little or no stomach acid secretion.7
- Another study found that up to 40% of postmenopausal women produce no gastric acid.8
The importance of digestive enzymes
Inadequate digestive enzyme production may also be the cause of dyspepsia. Enzymes are catalysts that make metabolic functions within the body possible. In fact, nothing takes place in the body that doesn’t involve enzymes in some way. The way our brain thinks, our muscles move, and how our stomach digests food are all affected by the behavior of specific enzymes.
Like the production of digestive juices, as we age our body’s enzyme supply decreases. Enzyme production can also be over-taxed by poor diet, illness, environmental toxins, and stress. Enzymes found in raw, whole food can help the body degrade nutrients and lessen the burden of digestion on the body. Heating, however, usually destroys these enzymes. Enzymatic supplementation taken with a meal can assist in the digestive process and help the body to better absorb and utilize nutrients, slow down the aging process, and improve overall health by:
- promoting improved digestion
- delivering essential nutrients
- supporting elimination
- improving energy levels
- preventing the accumulation of undigested foods in the large intestine which can be a source of toxicity for the body
Heartburn—why does it hurt so much?
Normally, food travels from the mouth down to the esophagus and through a sphincter muscle to get to the stomach. But if you find yourself wishing you could douse the fire burning behind your sternum, it’s because the sphincter muscle between the stomach and esophagus has relaxed, allowing food, stomach acid, and other digestive juices to travel up from the stomach into the esophagus. When your stomach is full, there’s more of a chance of this happening because extra pressure is placed on the valve.
Many people get heartburn occasionally, especially after large meals. In fact, about one in ten Americans has heartburn every day.1 But if it happens frequently or causes severe symptoms, it’s called Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). The sphincter muscle doesn’t work properly and relaxes more often than usual in people who have GERD, but it isn’t fully understood why this happens. And according to a new study in the September 2004 edition of the American Journal of Gastroenterology, eating too quickly may be a major cause of gastroesophageal reflux.9
The main symptom of GERD is heartburn. The stomach has a mucous lining to protect it from damage by stomach acid. However, there is no mucous lining in the esophagus, so stomach acid irritates it, causing a burning sensation. If severe, the pain can be hard to distinguish from a heart attack.
Sometimes food is regurgitated from the stomach back into the mouth. Severe cases of GERD can lead to inflammation of the esophagus which results in scarring and narrowing of the esophagus making it difficult to swallow.10
It’s important to get GERD under control because it can lead to other serious health problems, including ulcers, esophageal narrowing, Barrett’s esophagus, or a cellular change in the tissue of the esophagus which can lead to cancer.1
How nutrients are absorbed
When levels of stomach acid, bile, or digestive enzymes fall below optimal levels, digestion suffers and food allergies and malabsorption increase.
Stomach acid activates digestive enzymes that break down food into small particles for absorption. Low acidity may result in only partial digestion of foods, leading to the uncomfortable symptoms we’ve been discussing.
A combination of low acidity and undigested food makes it easier for bacteria and parasites to colonize the stomach or small intestine, and interfere with the digestion, absorption of fats, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals.
Fats and Carbohydrates
Stomach acid (Hydrochloric acid) stimulates the release of pancreatic enzymes and bile into the small intestine which digest and absorb carbohydrates, fats, and Vitamins A and E.
Hydrochloric acid converts pepsinogen into the enzyme pepsin which breaks proteins into smaller peptides that are absorbed by the small intestine.
Vitamins and Minerals
Hydrochloric acid assists the absorption and assimilation of vitamins and minerals including ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, folic acid, and iron. Dr. Jonathan Wright has made the observation that individuals who take acid-blocking drugs have a harder time absorbing calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, selenium, manganese, vanadium, molybdenum, cobalt, and many other “micro-trace” elements.11
Pouring gasoline on the fire! Digestive drugs can actually cause digestive distress and increase stomach acid!
There are many prescription and over-the-counter medications that neutralize or block gastric acid and provide quick, temporary relief—but they won’t cure your dyspepsia, and they may make it worse and lead to other health hazards. Here’s why:
The biggest problem with acid-blocking medications is that they disturb the normal feedback mechanism controlling stomach health, which is acid production. Normally, stomach acid secretion helps balance the growth of stomach cells, especially the acid-producing cells. But when we artificially block the production of stomach acid using drugs, the body responds by producing too much gastin—a stomach hormone normally blocked by our stomach acid production. This results in a condition known as Hypergastrinemia.
This excess gastin production causes changes in the stomach cells, notably a proliferation of acid-producing cells (causing a rebound ability of our stomach to produce acid).12 It may also result in cancerous-like stomach growths.13 The end result is an overproduction of acid after stopping these drugs—beyond what is normal and needed. This sets up a vicious cycle because the drugs very effectively turn off stomach acid until we stop using them. However, they also stimulate the growth of acid-producing stomach cells giving us even more acid production once we stop. Even worse, these drugs may actually promote cancer of the stomach because of the changes they cause. Equally troubling, studies show that aged animals are much more susceptible to these adverse changes than young ones.14 All of these drugs were initially approved only for the short-term treatment of ulcers or gastric reflux. However, they are increasingly being used as a daily, long-term quick fix with potentially disastrous long-term consequences.
- Calcium-based antacids can create acid rebound causing the stomach to produce more gastric acid after the antacid has worn off.15 They may also produce a mineral imbalance in the body by providing excess amounts of calcium without phosphorus which is needed to balance calcium metabolism.
- Magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate are also used in antacids and, since they both have a laxative effect, they are often combined with aluminum compounds which tend to be binding. Aluminum may be a culprit in other diseases and is something you definitely don’t want in your body. It can also leach calcium which eventually leads to osteoporosis.15
- Antacids may also interfere with the absorption of other drugs. Since they lower stomach acid, they may cause some coated pills to release their active ingredients earlier than they should—in the stomach instead of the large intestine. Antacids also interfere with the absorption of prescription drugs in the bloodstream, speeding it up or slowing it down.16
Prescription heartburn drugs reduce the production of stomach acid
Known as histamine (H2) blockers, these popular drugs (Tagamet, Pepcid, Axid, and Zantac) are available over the counter and by prescription. Not only do they take a while to work, but there is concern that they can mask the symptoms of an active ulcer and existing cancer of the stomach or esophagus.17 Many drugs interact with H2 blockers (particularly with Cimetidine—Tagamet). These drugs decrease the body’s ability to excrete caffeine, and individuals who consume large quantities of caffeine may experience tremors, insomnia, or heart palpitations. Cimetidine may increase the likelihood of alcohol intoxication.18
H2 blockers also produce side effects such as dizziness, depression, and hallucinations in elderly individuals, or those who are unable to adequately excrete the drugs (i.e. people with kidney disease). High doses, taken over a long time, have caused breast enlargement and sexual dysfunction in men. H2 blockers can also cause liver toxicity or decreased platelet counts.18
Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) are stronger drugs used to treat acid-induced inflammation, ulcers of the stomach and duodenum, and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). These drugs block acid production, and come with their own set of side effects. The most common include headache, diarrhea, stomach or abdominal pain, increased gas, or bloating, vomiting, rash, and dizziness. Nervousness, abnormal heartbeat, muscle pain, weakness, leg cramps, and water retention occur frequently.19
The Boston Globe Magazine reported that doctors jokingly refer to these drugs (Priolosec, Rapinex, Nexium)—as “purple crack.” “It’s an expensive habit, about $4 for each daily pill, or $1,500 a year.”17 But once you get hooked, it’s hard to give it up—because most people will do anything to avoid the heartburn that blazes after a favorite meal, even if relief is accompanied by headache, diarrhea, increased gas, or bloating …all common drug side effects. According to Dr. Jonathan Wright, “Multimillion dollar promotions to the public were launched to drive home the point that heartburn and indigestion are caused by too much acid, which can be ‘blocked’ (with these products, of course) at minimal risk. Oddly enough, the FDA has never required the companies advertising these products to document their claims that indigestion and heartburn are actually caused by overacidity.”20
Dr. Wright also says that the more we take these acid blockers, the more we accelerate our aging because they are also blocking the absorption of essential nutrients needed to repair and support cells, tissues, organs, and enzyme systems.20
Artichoke Leaf Extract
Artichoke may not be the most popular veggie to grace your dinner plate, but clinical studies show that its large basal leaves contain antioxidant, liver-protective, bile-enhancing, and lipid-lowering effects. The artichoke plant—Cynara scolymnus—is a relative of the well-known liver detoxifier Milk Thistle, and is one of the oldest known cultivated plants in the world. Used as a food and traditional remedy in the Mediterranean region since the 4th century B.C., the artichoke’s use as an aid for indigestion, insufficient liver function, and high cholesterol is now being proven in scientific studies.21
Promotion of bile flow is the basis for the beneficial effects of Artichoke Leaf Extract on the gastrointestinal system. Bile is a thick, yellowish green fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It is then released into the small intestine where it aids in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Good bile flow is also necessary for detoxification which is carried out by the liver. Bile serves as a carrier for the toxins that are excreted by the liver which are then sent to the intestine for their exit from the body. Cholesterol is also excreted in this way. Bile also helps keep the small intestine free of parasites. It promotes intestinal peristalsis and helps soften stool by promoting the incorporation of water which helps prevent constipation.2122
Cholestasis—decreased bile flow—is a major cause of dyspepsia.
The most common cause of cholestasis and impaired liver function is alcohol ingestion. In individuals who are especially sensitive, as little as one ounce of alcohol can damage the liver which results in fat being deposited in the liver. On the other hand, gallstones are the most common cause of bile duct obstruction. Gallstones affect approximately 20 million people in the U.S. and are linked to a high-fat, low-fiber diet.22
Cholestasis may also be caused by viral hepatitis, certain drugs and chemicals, pregnancy, hereditary disorders, or hyperthyroidism. Regardless of the cause, the consequence is that cholesterol and toxins remain in the liver which can injure liver cells and function.22
A variety of clinical in vitro and in vivo studies on Artichoke all confirm its traditional use to treat gastrointestinal complaints and protect the liver. Based on recent clinical studies, it also shows great promise as a treatment for high cholesterol.
- In an early German study, participants were given a one-time dose of Artichoke Extract or placebo, and their bile secretion was measured with special techniques over a several-hour period. The bile secretion was found to be significantly higher in the group that received the Artichoke Extract.23
- In another German study that included 553 patients with dyspeptic complaints and 279 patients with irritable bowel symptoms (IBS), the patients took a recommended dose of 2 capsules each of 320 mg of Artichoke Leaf Extract, three times per day with meals. All five IBS symptoms—abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, right-sided abdominal cramps, and constipation—along with general dyspepsia were significantly reduced after 6 weeks of treatment. The patients noticed improvement in their symptoms after an average of 10.4 days of treatment, and 84% of both patients and physicians rate the overall effectiveness of ALE as good or excellent.24
- A double-blind clinical trial that studied the impact of ALE on 44 healthy individuals with high cholesterol levels greater than 220 mg/dl found that it significantly decreased their cholesterol levels. In fact, the higher the initial cholesterol value, the more significant was the reduction in cholesterol levels. It was also observed that the protective HDL cholesterol levels showed a tendency to increase.25
- In vivo studies on rat liver cells found that ALE reduced the formation of cholesterol for several hours following exposure.26 Artichoke Leaf Extract is well tolerated and has no significant side effects. Although no known allergic reactions have been reported, those with known sensitivities to Asteraceae (daisy family) plants should avoid it. ALE is an excellent digestive aid for dyspepsia (especially bloating, constipation, flatulence, and diarrhea) and as a general tonic to improve liver function and detoxification.
Artichoke Leaf Extract has been found to:
- increase healthy bile secretion
- prevent fat infiltration in the liver
- inhibit liver cell free radical damage
- inhibit LDL oxidation
- inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis
This natural substance from the sap of a variety of pistachio trees (Pistacia lentiscus) that grow in the Mediterranean has been used for centuries in Italy and Greece as a traditional remedy against stomach upset, ulcers, and heartburn.27
Today, mastic is used primarily for gastrointestinal health and as a chewing gum base and flavoring additive. It is also especially effective for protecting the digestive system against duodenal and peptic ulcers, eradicating H.pylori and other gastrointestinal bacteria, and soothing dyspeptic complaints.28
The H. pylori bacterium has been estimated to be present in 30 to 40% of the U.S. population and is considered the world’s most common chronic infection.29 It is believed to be acquired through contaminated food and water, and transmitted by intimate contact such as kissing, where there is an exchange of saliva. It is common for parents and children to pass it back and forth.
Recent studies have shown that mastic is particularly effective against H. pylori. One study showed that mastic killed 50% of the 16 strains tested at a concentration of 125 mcg/ml and 90% of the 16 strains at a concentration of 500 mcg/ml. The researchers also noted that mastic produced alterations, abnormalities, and fragmentation in H. pylori cells, making it difficult for the bacterium to survive in the body.30
Other studies showed that mastic can quickly heal gastric and even some duodenal ulcers.313233 Endoscopic studies have shown that lesions heal within weeks with mastic therapy with healthy tissue regrowth over the formerly damaged tissue—all without the use of antibiotics.
One of the oldest traditional remedies for gastric disorders is Ginger. This flavorful herb has been used in many cultures because of its digestion enhancing and stomach protective properties. Ginger extract contains a variety of active compounds which have been studied for their effects on digestion and gastric health as well as many other beneficial medicinal properties.34 Among the scientific validations of Ginger’s traditional uses are anti-ulcer and anti-dyspepsic properties. Among its effects, Ginger has been shown to inhibit the growth of H. pylori bacteria.35 Additionally, ginger has been shown to prevent ulcers from both drugs and stress.36 In the case of dyspepsia, Ginger has been proven to significantly relax the stomach, lessening the chance of an overactive stomach causing heart burn.37 Because of all these beneficial effects, Ginger Extract is a powerful weapon in the battle for digestive peace.
DigeZyme® is a multi-enzyme complex from Aspergillus oryzae consisting of amylases (starch digesting enzymes), proteases (protein digesting enzymes) and lipases (fat digesting enzymes). Lactase, a carbohydrate digestive enzyme that digests lactose, is included especially for individuals who are lactose intolerant.
Unlike the commonly available enzyme products of animal origin, DigeZyme® is derived from the microbial fermentation of grain. This preparation is therefore free from the potential hazards of latent viruses such as bovine spongiform encephalitis (BSE).
Aspergillis enzymes are unusually stable and active under a wide range of pH conditions, contrary to the once popular animal enzymes (i.e., pepsin, pancreatin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancrelipase, pancreatic amylase, etc.) which require special pH conditions, often lacking in a stomach ravaged by digestive problems.
It’s important to remember that cofactors such as vitamins and minerals are essential for the activity of many enzymes. For instance, there are over 300 enzymes in the human body that require zinc in order to function properly. Other enzymes may require B vitamins, magnesium, iron, copper, and selenium. So it’s a good idea to take an excellent vitamin/mineral supplement along with digestive enzymes for the best results.
Probiotic (beneficial bacteria) therapy originated in the ancient Near and Middle East where physicians used fermented milk for the treatment of various diseases including gastrointestinal disorders. Much later, scientists discovered that the health benefits from fermented milk were derived from the indigenous lactobacilli which also inhabit the human gastrointestinal tract, skin, and vaginal mucosa. It isn’t surprising, then, that the lactobacilli have been found to be effective in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, vaginal infections, and even high cholesterol.
The problem is, that lactobacillus—commonly called acidophilus—have a short shelf life and need refrigeration. They also do not survive the acidic environment of the stomach. In fact, most lactobacillus die in the stomach before they have a chance to reach the small intestine where they are most needed.
Lactobacillus sporogenes is a spore-forming probiotic that has been used in Japan successfully for more than 20 years. It represents a significant breakthrough in lactobacillus supplementation because it can survive the acidity of gastric and bile juices, and it produces L(+) lactic acid in the intestines which is fully metabolized to glycogen. Once in the small intestine, a spore will sporulate, meaning it will open up and grow. It also doesn’t require refrigeration.
Intestinal flora supplementation is highly recommended when an individual has dyspeptic complaints, or has:
- Taken antibiotics that kill bacteria, antifungal drugs that kill fungi and yeast, and antiprotozoal drugs that kill organisms such as Giardia and Malaria
- Chronic diarrhea
- Chronic constipation
- Malabsorption/malassimilation problems due to poor diet
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease
- Used drugs that inhibit the immune system
Clinical trials with Lactobacillus sporogenes have proven successful in the treatment of:
- Gastrointestinal disorders
- Non-specific vaginitis38
- Antibiotic-induced diarrhea in children39
- High cholesterol40
- Imbalance of intestinal microflora42
For all these reasons, Lactobacillus sporogenes is considered to be an excellent supplement to aid in replenishing normal intestinal flora.
Stomach acid and bile flow help maintain normal health in the gastrointestinal tract. Stomach acid supports digestion, helps the body absorb vital nutrients, digest protein by stimulating pepsin production, and helps prevent bacterial and fungal overgrowth.
Bile flow also helps support normal gastrointestinal health by carrying toxins out of the liver, excreting cholesterol, and keeping the small intestine free of parasites. Both are essential to overall health and are important factors in preventing premature aging.
So, if you’re among the millions of Americans who suffer from dyspeptic complaints, forget about the pharmaceuticals that decrease the acid that’s vital to healthy digestion and health and longevity. Consider adding Artichoke Leaf Extract, mastic, Digezyme® and Lactobacillus sporogenes to your health regimen. These safe digestive aids naturally boost the body’s ability to absorb and assimilate nutrients without harmful side effects … and will maximize the health of your digestive tract and promote the health of your entire body.
- King, John E., M.D., editor in chief. Mayo Clinic on Digestive Health. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.
- Chopra, Deepak, M.D. Perfect Digestion: The key to balanced living. New York: Harmony Books, 1995.
- Lukaczer, Dan, N.D. “Gastrointestinal Health and Disease.”Nutrition Science News, December, 1996.
- Alternative Medicine Review 1997; 2(2):116-127.
- Shmuely H, Obure S, Passaro DJ, Abuksis G, Yahav J, Fraser G, et al. Association between dyspeptic symptoms and Helicobacter pylori infection in Nakuru, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 2003 Sept [date cited]. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no9/02-0374.htm
- Haruma K, Kamada T, Kawaguchi H, Okamoto S, Yoshihara M, Sumii K, Inoue M, Kishimoto S, Kajiyama G, Miyoshi A. Effect of age and Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric acid secretion. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 Mar;15(3):277-83.
- Krasinski Sd, Russell Rm, et al. Fundic atrophic gastritis in an elderly population. Effect on hemoglobin and several serum nutritional indicators. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1986 Nov;34(11):800-6.
- Grossman MI, Kirsner JB, Gillespie IE. Basal and histalog-stimulated gastric secretion in control subjects and in patients with peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Gastroenterology 1963;45:15-26.
- S.M. Wildi et al. “The influence of rapid food intake on postprandial reflux: Studies in health volunteers.” Am J Gastroenterol, Sept. 2004. Vol.99 No.9
- Bupa-the personal health service:
- Wright, Jonathan, M.D. “Theory of aging, part II.”
- Noto T, Nagasaki M, Yomota E, Endo T. Gastric mucosal functioning following withdrawal of omeprazole in rats.Arzneimittelforschung. 1998 Jan;48(1):70-3.
- Havu N, Mattsson H, Ekman L, Carlsson E. Enterochromaffin-like cell carcinoids in the rat gastric mucosa following long-term administration of ranitidine. Digestion. 1990;45(4):189-95.
- Delle Fave G, Helander H, Holt S, et al. Acid suppression and gastric mucosal biology. Dig Dis Sci. 1994 Sep;39(9):1843-52.
- Balch, James, M.D., Walker, Morton, M.D. Heartburn and What To Do About It. Avery Publishing Group, Garden City Park, New York, 1998. pp12-14
- National Digestive Disease Education and information Clearinghouse. Cirrhosis of the liver. DD Clearinghouse Fact Sheet. Public Health Service, NIH: U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, 2989.
- “When it’s not an ulcer.” Consumer Reports, August 1995, p. 552.
- EMedicine consumer healthhttp://www.emedicinehealth.com/articles/43286-6.asp
- Swidey, Neil. “How the Drug Companies Deceive You: The Inside Story of Nexium.” Boston Globe November 17, 2002.
- Jordan, Karin G., M.D. “The Artichoke, More Than Just a Gourmet Food.” Life Extension Magazine, July 1999.
- “Artichoke Extract: Improves Digestion, Liver Function, and Cholesterol Levels.” Natural Medicine Journal, Aug/Sept. Vol. 1, No.7, 1998.
- Kirchoff R, et al. Increase in choleresis by means of artichoke extract. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Phytomedicine 1;107, 1994.
- Walker AF, Middleton RW, Petrowicz O. Artichoke leaf extract reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in a post-marketing surveillance study. Phytotherapy Research, 2001. Vol. 15: 58-61.
- Petrowicz O, Gebhardt R, Donner M, Schwandt P, Kraft K: effects of artichoke leaf extract on lipoprotein metabolism in vitro and in vivo.Atherosclerosis 129: 147, 1997.
- Gebhardt R. Antioxidative and protective properties of extract from leaves of the artichoke (Cynara scolymnus L.) against hydro-peroxide-induced oxidative stress incultured rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 144:279-286, 1997.
- Hartwell JL. Plants used against cancer. Lloydia 1967;30/4:379-436.
- Huwez FU, Thirlwell D, Cockayne A, Ala’Aldeen DA. Mastic gum kills Helicobacter pylori. NEJM 1998 Dec 24;339(26):1946.
- Jones RG, Trowbridge DB, Go MF. Helicobacter pylori infection in peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy. Front Biosci 2001 Dec 1;6:E213-26. Review.
- Huwez FU, Thirlwell D, Cockayne A, Ala’Aldeen DA. Mastic gum kills Helicobacter pylori. NEJM 1998 Dec 24;339(26):1946.
- Huwez FU, Al-Habbal MJ. Mastic in treatment of benign gastric ulcers. Gastroenterol Jpn 1986 Jun;21(3):273-4.
- Al-Said MS, Ageel AM, Parmar NS, Tariq M. Evaluation of mastic, a crude drug obtained from Pistacia lentiscus for gastric and duodenal anti-ulcer activity. J Ethnopharmacol 1986;15:271-8.
- Al-Habbal MJ, Al-Habbal Z, Huwez FU. A double-blind controlled clinical trial of mastic and placebo in the treatment of duodenal ulcer.J Clin Exp Pharm Physiol 1984;11:541-4.
- Afzal M, Al-Hadidi D, Menon M, Pesek J, Dhami MS. Ginger: an ethnomedical, chemical and pharmacological review. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2001;18(3-4):159-90.
- Mahady GB, Pendland SL, Yun GS, Lu ZZ, Stoia A. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and the gingerols inhibit the growth of Cag A+ strains of Helicobacter pylori. Anticancer Res. 2003 Sep-Oct;23(5A):3699-702.
- al-Yahya MA, Rafatullah S, Mossa JS, et al. Gastroprotective activity of ginger zingiber officinale rosc., in albino rats. Am J Chin Med. 1989;17(1-2):51-6.
- Gonlachanvit S, Chen YH, Hasler WL, Sun WM, Owyang C. Ginger reduces hyperglycemia-evoked gastric dysrhythmias in healthy humans: possible role of endogenous prostaglandins. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Dec;307(3):1098-103. Epub 2003 Oct 08.
- Hughes VL, Hillier SL. Microbiologic characteristics of Lactobacillus products used for colonization of the vagina. Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Feb;75(2):244-8.
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