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Nutritional Supplements That Lower Your Blood Pressure Without Drugs

Can you guess who has high blood pressure?

Susan is a 55-year-old married Hispanic lawyer who works 60 hours a week, in addition to helping care for her elderly parents. She loves her job and has a large network of friends. She eats a standard American diet and tends to overeat when she gets stressed out. Her schedule doesn’t allow for much leisure time, and she gets little exercise.

Mark is a 50-year-old Caucasian draftsman who works for a busy architect. Although his diet consists of lots of take-out food, he has a strong physique and is fairly active. He has few friends, lives alone, has a short fuse, and is disappointed with his life.

Steven is a 63-year-old African American project manager in charge of a multi-million dollar budget. He is recently divorced and eats most of his meals out. Steven is about 50 pounds overweight and spends most of his free time watching television. He is also a smoker.

The answer

Susan has high blood pressure at 146/86, but she doesn’t know it. Compared with someone with normal blood pressure, she has more than three times the risk of dying from a heart attack; almost four times the risk of dying from a stroke; about three times the risk of developing heart failure; and about three times the risk of developing kidney disease.

Mark has pre-hypertension (130/80). Although he is physically active, his diet is poor and he is socially isolated. He is on his way to hypertension.

Steven has been on blood pressure medication for years to control high blood pressure. He suffers from numerous side effects from the drugs, including gout, insomnia, depression and fatigue. He feels so bad most of the time that he doesn’t remember what it’s like to feel energetic and vibrant.

The side effects Steven is experiencing are just the tip of the iceberg. There are a half a dozen different types of pharmaceutical hypertension treatment therapies, and all of them have side effects. These side effects run the gamut from the insomnia, depression and fatigue that Steven is experiencing, to very serious conditions like hypercholesterinemia and impaired glucose tolerance leading to the increased risk of developing Diabetes mellitus type 2

Add to this the tremendous costs associated with hypertension drugs and a natural, side effect free solution to controlling high blood pressure is even more appealing.

There is a better way to support healthy blood pressure and feel good.

What is hypertension?

Hypertension and high blood pressure are the same exact thing. Hypertension is just the medical term for high blood pressure. It occurs when the force of blood passing through blood vessels is above normal. The increase in pressure forces the blood to hit the blood vessel walls.

What causes hypertension?

Hypertension is usually a result of a combination of stress, high cholesterol, inflammation and sticky blood platelets. Insulin resistance—also known as metabolic syndrome—and too much body fat are major contributing factors, and heavy metal toxicity is another culprit.

Why is hypertension dangerous?

It’s called the “silent killer” because it is insidious. It often has no warning signs or symptoms.

If your blood pressure is high, it causes strain on the vessels carrying blood around your body. This strain can cause vessels to become injured leading to plaque buildup as a response to injury. This can lead to narrow blood vessels and then clotting of passageways, which can cause damage to the heart and/or brain.

High blood pressure ultimately increases your risk for getting heart disease, kidney disease, dementia, and for having a stroke.

Reduce your blood pressure without drugs

Susan, Mark, and Steven are examples of people who are potentially headed for cardiovascular disease and other health problems. They need to reduce their stress levels, and make lifestyle changes that include eating a healthy diet, exercising, maintaining healthy weight, and in Steven’s case, eliminating smoking. They should also consider:

  • Taking a nutritional supplement to reduce hypertension, which includes the ingredients discussed in this article
  • Making sure they are getting enough essential fatty acids by taking an excellent fish oil nutritional supplement, eating cold water fish (salmon, mackerel, cod, herring, sardines or eel) several times a week
  • Removing heavy metal toxicity with an EDTA oral chelation supplement, which also removes harmful calcium deposits throughout the body and blood vessels
  • Correcting for insulin resistance (also called metabolic syndrome or Syndrome X), which means cutting out refined carbohydrates and exercising at least three times a week
  • Taking hawthorn, a safe heart tonic that improves blood supply to the heart

If these composite stories seem a bit familiar, you’ll probably want to do the same. Instead of relying on pharmaceutical drugs and their terrible side effects, you may find that a natural approach to managing your blood pressure is the best way to go.

So be smart. It’s easy to monitor your blood pressure. It’s easy for your doctor to prescribe a drug to lower your blood pressure. But it’s easier and much safer to prevent the danger before it comes.

For your sake and the sake of your loved ones, learn the facts about hypertension and how to live a heart-healthy life. Find out how you can reduce your risk for heart attack and stroke with a few lifestyle changes.

Start right now by taking time-tested and scientifically proven nutraceuticals that support normal blood pressure and cardiovascular health. We’ll show you how to make it real easy.

We’ve chosen the following nutraceuticals as the most promising, cutting-edge natural remedies to combat hypertension. They all have a long history of traditional use and now scientific studies are showing how and why they work.

Hypertension: Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is blood pressure?
Blood pressure is the measurement of resistance exerted each time your heart beats and sends blood flowing through the arteries. When your heart contracts and forces blood through the arteries your blood pressure goes up. When your heart relaxes it goes down.

Systolic pressure (the top number in the blood pressure reading) is the peak reading of the pressure produced by this contraction. The diastolic pressure (the bottom number in the blood pressure reading) measures the pressure between the beats as the heart relaxes.

2. What’s the difference between high blood pressure and hypertension?
There is no difference; both mean the same thing. Hypertension is just the medical term for high blood pressure.

3. What’s considered normal and high blood pressure?
According to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (a division of the Institutes of Health), normal blood pressure is 120/80 or less.

Blood Pressure Level (mmHg)
Category
Systolic
Diastolic
Normal
< 120
and
< 80
Prehypertension
120-139
or
80-89
High Blood Pressure
Stage 1 Hypertension
149-159
or
90-99
Stage 2 Hypertension
160
or
100

4. Who is at risk?
Anyone can develop high blood pressure, regardless of age, gender or race. It is estimated that one in every four American adults has high blood pressure. The good news is that you can prevent and control high blood pressure with a healthy lifestyle and nutritional supplements proven to support your cardiovascular system and blood pressure.

Non-Hispanic blacks are more likely to suffer from high blood pressure than non-Hispanic whites.

In 2004, the death rates per 100,000 population from high blood pressure were 15.7 for white males, 51.0 for black males, 14.5 for white females and 40.9 for black females.

5. What are the symptoms of hypertension?
There are usually no symptoms or signs of hypertension. In fact, nearly one-third of those who have it don’t know it. The only way to know if you have hypertension is to have your blood pressure checked.

If your blood pressure is extremely high, you may experience these symptoms:

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  1. Severe headache
  2. Fatigue or confusion
  3. Vision problems
  4. Chest pain
  5. Difficulty breathing
  6. Irregular heartbeat
  7. Blood in the urine

6. Who is more likely to develop hypertension? Individuals who are:

  1. Smokers
  2. African-Americans
  3. Pregnant
  4. Taking birth control pills
  5. Over the age of 35
  6. Overweight or obese
  7. Physically inactive
  8. Excessive drinkers
  9. Prone to eating fatty and/or salty foods

Eclipta alba reduces mild hypertension

Eclipta alba is an Ayurvedic anti-aging herb that has been shown to rejuvenate bones, teeth, memory, sight, and hearing. It is especially beneficial to the liver, and a recent clinical study also shows that it reduces mild hypertension. We especially like the research done on this herb because it was tested on humans, and showed a high significant change in blood pressure. Also, it helps reduce blood lipids, which have a direct correlation to high blood pressure.

Additionally, eclipta alba reduces swelling from water retention, which is a big indicator of hypertension.

How does eclipta alba work?

This extract is believed to help reduce blood pressure because it:

  • Helps reduce cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride levels
  • Works as a diuretic

Scientific study

A study at the department of Foods and Nutrition, Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University in Hyderabad, India, tested the effect of eclipta alba leaf powder on 60 men (40-55 years of age) with mild hypertension. The subjects were divided into two groups, with one given a placebo and the other group given six capsules (500 mg each) per day in three equal doses for a period of 60 days.

The group that took the eclipta alba showed a 15% reduction in blood pressure, a 17% decrease in total cholesterol, a 24% decrease in LDL (bad cholesterol) and a 14% decrease in triglycerides. Results also revealed a remarkable increase in urine volume (34%) and urine sodium (24%). The researchers concluded that eclipta alba is diuretic, hypotensive and hypocholesterolemic, and helps in alleviating oxidative stress-induced complications in people with hypertension.1

Green coffee bean extract —the antioxidant for hypertension

Coffee is made by roasting green coffee beans. The extract from the unroasted bean, referred to as green coffee bean extract, contains potent medicinal compounds called chlorogenic acids. Scientific studies have demonstrated that these compounds can reduce high blood pressure.

Don’t worry about the caffeine: green coffee bean extracts contain only about 10% caffeine by weight, a high daily dose contains no more than about 20% of the caffeine content of a strong cup of coffee.

How does green coffee bean extract work?

Chlorogenic acids are phenolic compounds contained in vegetables and fruits, but very abundant in green coffee bean extract. This extract is believed to reduce hypertension because it reduces oxidative stress and improves nitric oxide (NO) levels.

Nitric oxide penetrates the membranes of almost all the cells in your body and helps regulate many cellular functions. In blood vessels, NO is vital because it regulates the tone of the endothelial cells—the cells that line the inside of blood vessels—and helps dilate blood vessels so that blood flow is unrestricted. If the epithelial cells are impaired, they can cause spasms or constrictions in the blood vessels, which can then lead to hypertension.

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Free radicals in your blood vessels can also lead to hypertension. This theory arises from scientist’s observations in lab research that hypertension can be produced experimentally by various oxidative molecules, such as superoxide (also referred to as ROS, or reactive oxygen species). Superoxide disables nitric oxide by forming peroxynitrite, a potent constrictor of arteries.2 Consequently, the theory is that antioxidants such as green coffee bean extract may play a role in maintaining healthy blood pressure levels.

Scientific studies

Several double blind, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated green coffee bean extract’s antihypertensive benefits. In a Japanese study 117 men with mild hypertension took green coffee bean extracts at three different potencies for one month. After 28 days, the results showed a significant improvement in blood pressure as compared to placebo in the groups taking 185 mg as well as the group taking 93 mg of green coffee bean extract.

Systolic blood pressure (the top number) in the group taking 93 mg of green coffee bean extract was reduced by about 4.7 points, and in the group taking 185 mg it was reduced by about 5.6 points. Diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) was reduced by about 3.2 in the group taking 93 mg, and by about 3.9 in the group taking 185 mg.

There were no adverse effects from taking the extract, and the researchers concluded that daily use of green coffee bean extract has blood pressure-lowering effect in patients with mild hypertension.3

In another similar Japanese study subjects with mild hypertension received 140 mg of green coffee bean extract each day. Blood pressure, pulse rate, body mass index, routine blood test, hematochemistry, urinalysis and subjective symptoms were recorded throughout the study. In the green coffee bean extract group, but not the placebo group, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) decreased significantly during the study. There was no difference in body mass index and pulse rate between groups, nor were there any apparent side effects.4

A study of the effect of green coffee bean extract on hypertensive laboratory animals found that a single dose reduced blood pressure, reduced oxidative stress and improved nitric oxide levels. The animals were fed diets containing green coffee bean extract for eight weeks, and when compared to the placebo group, showed a reduction in blood pressure. The researchers concluded that dietary chlorogenic acid (from green coffee bean extract) reduces oxidative stress and improves nitric oxide levels by inhibiting excessive production of free radicals in arteries, which ultimately results in hypertension.5

Rhodiola extract—boosts energy and reduces stress to defeat high blood pressure

Rhodiola extract gently stimulates adrenal hormone production. It is a remedy for hypertension, sleep difficulties, poor appetite, irritability, headaches and fatigue from intense physical or intellectual strain. It also boosts immunity, improves concentration and stress resistance, and increases physical performance and uplifts mood.

Rhodiola is from a plant that is native to the mountainous regions of Europe, Asia and the Arctic, and has been used for centuries in Russia, Scandinavia and other eastern European countries. More than 180 pharmacological, phytochemical and clinical studies have been published since 1960, but it isn’t as well known in the West as it deserves because much of the research has been published in Slavic and Scandinavian languages. (And, of course, because no pharmaceutical company would have a financial incentive to promote it.)

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However, The Rhodiola Revolution (Brown, Gerbarq, Graham, Rodale Books) published a few years ago, contains an excellent overview of how this herb can help transform your life by reducing stress and stimulating neurotransmitters that positively affect the central nervous system.

Today it is popular with Russian athletes and cosmonauts as a physical energy booster. It also has a reputation for decreasing depression, enhancing work performance, eliminating fatigue, preventing high altitude sickness and protecting the heart. Russian researchers have categorized it as an adaptogen (along with ginseng) because of its ability to increase resistance to a variety of chemical, biological and physical stressors.

How does rhodiola work?

Rhodiola provides a number of health benefits by:

  • Stimulating the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and nicotinic cholinergic effects in the central nervous system.6,7 These studies suggest rhodiola’s ability to boost energy and decrease mental fatigue, which contributes to stress, a major contributor to hypertension.
  • Inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (a chemical that causes arteries to constrict)
  • Helping to protect the nervous system from oxidative damage by free radicals

A study at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, found that rhodiola extract inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in rabbits. This enzyme causes blood vessels to narrow, which causes blood pressure to go up.8

In a double blind cross-over study, the effects of rhodiola were observed in a group of 56 young, healthy physicians who worked the night shift. The doctors were tested for mental fatigue and given tests that reflected various perceptive and cognitive functions, such as short-term memory and concentration. These parameters were tested before and after night duty during three periods of two weeks each when the doctors were given either one placebo tablet or rhodiola supplement a day, which was followed by a washout period.

The doctors who took the rhodiola supplement during the first two-week period showed a significant improvement in these tests. These results suggest that rhodiola can reduce general fatigue under certain stressful conditions.9

Grape skin extract can protect your veins and arteries

Grape skin extract has been attributed with the ability to help protect the circulatory system. Grape skin contains flavonoids (polyphenols, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol)—powerful phytochemicals with potent cardioprotective benefits.10

Heart disease is related to increased inflammation and grape skin extract is an excellent anti-inflammatory.10,12 It also appears to help lower cholesterol levels11 and protect against heart damage from ischemia (an inadequate supply of blood flow due to blockage of an artery).

How does grape skin extract work?

Grape skin extract provides a number of health benefits by:

  • Reducing susceptibility to vascular damage12
  • Decreasing activity of angiotensin, a hormone that causes blood vessel constriction that leads to an elevation in blood pressure10
  • Increasing production of the vasodilator hormone nitric oxide10,12
  • Inhibiting platelet function17 and inflammatory responses12
  • Most researchers agree that grape skin extract helps reduce blood pressure because of a combination of its vasodilator effects.13

Scientific studies

Although there are no clinical, human studies showing the effect that grape skin extract has on reducing blood pressure in humans, in laboratory animals it reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure, probably via its vasodilator effects.13

Another animal study expanded on this by giving fructose-fed animals grape seed extract, which prevented hypertension and free radical damage. Ordinarily, without the addition of grape seed extract to their diet, the animals most likely would have experienced several symptoms that accompany insulin resistance, including hypertension.14

Rosemary extract—protects your brain and blood flow with antiplatelet activity

Rosemary has been used for thousands of years as a savory spice, food preservative, and in cosmetics and hair products. It has also been used commercially as an antimicrobial food preservative for the past several decades. There is not much direct scientific evidence to show that rosemary lowers blood pressure but a lot showing other, often related, health effects.

We know for certain that it has a lot to offer as a nutritional supplement, especially in the prevention of some types of cancer, allergies and the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Plus rosemary extract is used widely as a folk remedy in Morocco for hypertension and diabetes.15

Therefore we recommend it in a comprehensive natural approach to high blood pressure.

How does rosemary extract work?

Rosemary extract offers a number of health benefits by:

  • Preventing blood platelets from sticking together
  • Inhibiting the oxidation of LDL (bad cholesterol)
  • Inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme
  • Providing powerful antioxidant protection
  • Protecting brain cells from the normal effects of aging
  • Possibly slowing down the progression of Alzheimer’s disease
  • Inhibiting growth of cancer cells
  • Helping reduce allergy symptoms, especially to dust mites
  • Increasing potency of vitamin E

Scientific studies

A recent study at the College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea, investigated the antiplatelet activity of rosemary extract on laboratory animals and found that it has the potential for being developed as a remedy for preventing blood platelets from sticking together.16

It has also been shown to inhibit the oxidation of LDL (bad cholesterol).17

Another study at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, found that rosemary extract has the highest rate of inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) when compared to lemon balm and oregano.18

Salvia miltiorrhiza—thins the blood and improves cardiovascular health

Salvia miltiorrhiza, also called danshen, has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for hundreds of years to treat a variety of ailments. It is especially revered for its ability to improve blood circulation and protect against cardiovascular disease.

Salvia miltiorrhiza is a perennial that produces small, grayish leaves in the spring, blue, red, or purple flowers in summer and brownish nut-like fruits in the fall. Because salvia belongs to the sage family of plants, its aromatic leaves are often dried and used to season meats and sauces. Its leaves and twigs are also used to make tea. Salvia miltiorrhiza, however, should not be confused with the common herb sage.

Salvia grows abundantly in the wild throughout Asia, and on farms in China and Japan. Its distinctive, bright red roots are dug up in the fall or early winter, and then dried in the sun for medicinal use.

It has the ability to thin the blood, reduce blood clotting, improve circulation, and reduce blood pressure in animals, but this has not been demonstrated in high-quality human trials. Although our preference is to recommend nutraceuticals that have been demonstrated to be effective in human trials, we still believe that salvia miltiorrhiza is a valuable addition to the other nutraceuticals in this article for managing healthy blood pressure. And you’ll see why in just a moment.

How does salvia work?

In Traditional Chinese Medicine, salvia has been used to treat hypertension, and prevent and treat heart conditions and strokes. Results from animal and human studies support these uses and have found that salvia:

  • Improves blood circulation by limiting the stickiness of platelets and decreasing the production of fibrin—threads of protein that trap blood cells to form clots—and thromboxane 19,20
  • Relaxes blood vessels by increasing production of nitric oxide21
  • Protects the inner linings of arteries from damage from atherosclerosis22
  • Reduces blood pressure by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)23

Scientific studies

Although there are no high-quality human studies on salvia miltiorrhiza, researchers at the Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, New Jersey Medical School in Newark, recently found that it induces vasodilation and reduces blood pressure by stimulating production of nitric oxide, an important chemical that helps arteries dilate so that blood flow is unrestricted. Hypertension is typically associated with reduced nitric oxide levels, and in this study hypertensive laboratory animals that were treated with salvia experienced an increase in nitric oxide.24

In other animal studies salvia has appeared to interfere with the development of liver fibrosis—the formation of scar-like fibers that occur from chronic hepatitis, alcoholism or over-exposure to toxins and drugs. In the case of liver fibrosis, because the non-functioning fibers crowd out active liver tissue, liver function decreases gradually as the amount of fibrous tissue increases.25

If your goal is to achieve and maintain healthy blood pressure, it’s a good idea to include salvia miltiorrhiza as a dietary supplement because sometimes when a person has high blood pressure it affects the portal vein, which supplies the liver with blood from the intestine. Portal hypertension can lead to the growth of auxiliary vessels that connect to the general circulation, bypassing the liver. When this occurs, substances that are normally removed by the liver pass into the general circulation. A build up of these toxic substances can result in a host of symptoms including impaired judgment, personality and behavior changes, mood changes, confusion, loss of consciousness, and coma. And you certainly don’t want that to happen.

Caution: Possible drug interaction when taken with Warfarin.26 Individuals who have hemophilia or other blood clotting disorders should avoid taking salvia.27

Taurine—relaxes the heart and prevents arrhythmias

Taurine is a non-essential sulfur-containing amino acid that is found in high levels in the heart and skeletal muscles, as well as in the central nervous system. Taurine is a main ingredient in bile and assists in the digestion of fats and the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.

Recently, scientists have discovered that taurine helps reduce and prevent symptoms associated with epilepsy, hypertension, congestive heart failure and diabetes. Subjectively, taurine is known to have a calming effect.

How does taurine work?

Taurine provides a number of health benefits by:

  • Facilitating the passage of sodium, potassium and possibly calcium and magnesium ions into and out of cells
  • Facilitating the relaxation of the heart muscle during diastole
  • Assisting with proper calcium balance and metabolism in the heart muscle
  • Reducing hypertension, platelet stickiness, improving cardiac contractility, and helping to prevent arrhythmias.

Scientific studies

The beneficial effects of taurine have been demonstrated in studies involving human subjects with hypertension. Taurine supplementation of 6 grams/day for as little as 7 days resulted in significant decreases in blood pressure in these patients. This was verified in two other studies, one of them with only 3 grams of taurine. It is interesting to note that taurine does not cause a reduction in blood pressure in humans with normal blood pressure.28

A double blind, placebo-controlled study done in 1987 showed that taurine reduced blood pressure in 19 young patients with borderline hypertension.

Systolic blood pressure (the top number) decreased by 9 points in the 10 patients treated with taurine, compared with a 2.7 decrease in the 9 patients given a placebo.

Diastolic pressure (the bottom number) decreased by 4 points in the taurine-treated patients compared with 1.2 points in the placebo-treated patients.29

Additionally, there have been dozens of studies showing the positive effect that taurine has on laboratory animals with salt- and fructose-induced hypertension.30,31

Conclusion

You don’t have to be like Susan, Mark or Steven. They are well on their way to becoming hypertension statistics. Because it isn’t accompanied by symptoms, it’s a health concern that’s easy to ignore. But it’s also easy to control; naturally and without high priced, side-effect laden pharmaceuticals.

Take the time now to check your blood pressure. If it is elevated, take the steps outlined in this article to get healthy BEFORE your doctor insists on treating your hypertension with drugs.

Because hypertension has no outward symptoms, by the time you realize that you have it you might also have other dangerous health problems, including cardiovascular disease.

So play it smart. You don’t have to become a statistic. Stack the odds in your favor by changing your lifestyle as much as you are able to, and by taking safe and effective nutritional supplements to control your blood pressure so you can live a long, healthy life.

References

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  2. Taddei S, Virdis A, Ghiadoni L, et al. Age-related reduction of NO availability and oxidative stress in humans. Hypertension. 2001 Aug;38(2):274-9.
  3. Kozuma K, Tsuchiya S, Kohori J et al. Antihypertensive effect of green coffee bean extract on mildly hypertensive subjects. Hypertens Res. 2006;28:711-8.
  4. Watanabe T, Arai Y, Mitsui Y et al. The blood pressure-lowering effect and safety of chlorogenic Acid from green coffee bean extract in essential hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2006;28:439-49.
  5. Suzuki A, Yamamoto N, Jokura H et al. Chlorogenic acid attenuates hypertension and improves endothelial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens. 2006;24:1065-73.
  6. Marina TF. Effect of Rhodiola rosea extract on bioelectrical activity of the cerebral cortex isolated to a different extent from the brain. Saratikov AS, editor. Stimulants of the Central Nervous System. Tomsk, Russia: Tomsk State University Press; 1968. p. 27-31. Brown, Richard, Gerbarq, Patricia, Graham, Barbara. The Rhodiola Revolution: Transform Your Health with the herbal Breakthrough of the 21st century. 2004, Rodale Books.
  7. Saratikov A, Marina TF, Fisanova LL. Effect of golden root extract on processes of serotonin synthesis in CNS. Journal of Biological Sciences 1978;6:142. Brown, Richard, Gerbarq, Patricia, Graham, Barbara. The Rhodiola Revolution: Transform Your Health with the herbal Breakthrough of the 21st century. 2004, Rodale Books.
  8. Kwon YI, Jang HD, Shetty K. Evaluation of Rhodiola crenulata and Rhodiola rosea for management of type II diabetes and hypertension.Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006;15(3):425-32.
  9. Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, Gabrielian E, Wikman G, Wagner H. Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue–a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine. 2000 Oct;7(5):365-71.
  10. Vitseva O, Varghese S, Chakrabarti S, Folts JD, Freedman JE. Grape seed and skin extracts inhibit platelet function and release of reactive oxygen intermediates. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 2005 October;46(4):445-51.
  11. Frederiksen, H, Mortensen, A, et  al, Effects of red grape skin and seed extract supplementation on atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research .
  12. Opie LH, Lecour S. Opie LH, Lecour S. The red wine hypothesis: from concepts to protective signalling molecules. Eur Heart J. 2007 Jul;28(14):1683-93. Epub 2007 Jun 7.
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  14. Al-Awwadi NA, Araiz C, Bornet A, Delbosc S, Cristol JP, Linck N, Azay J, Teissedre PL, Cros G. Extracts enriched in different polyphenolic families normalize increased cardiac NADPH oxidase expression while having differential effects on insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy in high-fructose-fed rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jan 12;53(1):151-7.
  15. Tahraoui A, El-Hilaly J, Israili ZH, Lyoussi B. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province). J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Mar 1;110(1):105-17. Epub 2006 Sep 23.
  16. Zeng HH, Tu PF, Zhou K, Wang H, Wang BH, Lu JF. Antioxidant properties of phenolic diterpenes from Rosmarinus officinalis. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001 Dec;22(12):1094-8.
  17. Lee JJ, Jin YR, Lee JH, Yu JY, Han XH, Oh KW, Hong JT, Kim TJ, Yun YP. Antiplatelet activity of carnosic acid, a phenolic diterpene from Rosmarinus officinalis. Planta Med. 2007 Feb;73(2):121-7.
  18. Kwon YI, Vattem DA, Shetty K. Evaluation of clonal herbs of Lamiaceae species for management of diabetes and hypertension.Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006;15(1):107-18.
  19. Cheng TO. Cheng TO. Cardiovascular effects of Danshen.Int J Cardiol. 2007 Sep 14;121(1):9-22. Epub 2007 Mar 23.
  20. Park JW, Lee SH, Yang MK, Lee JJ, Song MJ, Ryu SY, Chung HJ, Won HS, Lee CS, Kwon SH, Yun YP, Choi WS, Shin HS. 15,16-dihydrotanshinone I, a major component from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Dansham), inhibits rabbit platelet aggregation by suppressing intracellular calcium mobilization. Arch Pharm Res. 2008 Jan;31(1):47-53.
  21. Lam FF, Yeung JH, Chan KM, Or PM. Relaxant effects of danshen aqueous extract and its constituent danshensu on rat coronary artery are mediated by inhibition of calcium channels. Vascul Pharmacol. 2007 Apr;46(4):271-7. Epub 2006 Nov 18.
  22. Ling S, Dai A, Guo Z, Komesaroff PA. A preparation of herbal medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza reduces expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2008 Jan;51(1):38-44.
  23. Kang DG, Yun YG, Ryoo JH, Lee HS. Anti-hypertensive effect of water extract of danshen on renovascular hypertension through inhibition of the renin angiotensin system. Am J Chin Med. 2002;30(1):87-93.
  24. Kim DD, Sánchez FA, Durán RG, Kanetaka T, Durán WN.Endothelial nitric oxide synthase is a molecular vascular target for the Chinese herb Danshen in hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 May;292(5):H2131-7. Epub 2006 Dec 15.
  25. Oh SH, Cho KH, Yang BS, Roh YK Natural compounds from Danshen suppress the activity of hepatic stellate cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2006 Sep;29(9):762-7.
  26. Fugh-Berman A. Herb-drug interactions. Lancet. 2000 Mar 18;355(9208):1019-20.
  27. Izzo AA, Di Carlo G, Borrelli F, Ernst E. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and herbal medicines: the risk of drug interaction.Int J Cardiol. 2005 Jan;98(1):1-14.
  28. Militante JD, Lombardini JB. Treatment of hypertension with oral taurine: experimental and clinical studies. Amino Acids. 2002;23(4):381-93.
  29. Nandhini AT, Anuradha CV. Hoe 140 abolishes the blood pressure lowering effect of taurine in high fructose-fed rats. Amino Acids. 2004 Jun;26(3):299-303. Epub 2003 May 28.
  30. T Fujita, K Ando, H Noda, Y Ito, Y SatoT Fujita, K Ando, H Noda, Y Ito, Y Sato. Effects of increased adrenomedullary activity and taurine in young patients with borderline hypertension.Circulation. 1987 Mar ;75 (3):525-32 3815764 (P,S,E,B).
  31. Yoshioka M, Takasugi Y, Koga Y. [Central hypotensive effect involving neurotransmitters of long-term administration of taurine to stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat] Masui. 2007 Feb;56(2):139-47.
  32. Hua HM, Ito T, Qiu ZG, Azuma J [Progress in research on function and mechanism of cardiac vascular system of taurine]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 May;30(9):653-8.

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