Remarkable Plant Extracts Treat Varicose Veins and Hemorrhoids

( And Conventional Medicine Has Almost Nothing to Offer )

  • Learn why varicose veins are a potentially serious issue that should not be ignored
  • Reduce edema (swelling), especially in the legs
  • Stop the pain and itching of hemorrhoids
  • Reduce your risk of varicose veins … even if they run in your family
  • Feel relief from the sensations of heaviness and tingling in your lower legs

The most common form of vascular disease is varicose veins which usually manifests as incapacitating bulging veins in the legs, and/or painful and itchy hemorrhoids. But varicose veins are much more than a nuisance … if you ignore them, they could be fatal.

Varicose veins in the legs are typically treated with compression stockings, and hemorrhoids with over-the-counter topical ointments. And, when the going really gets rough, patients can choose from a variety of surgical procedures. But these treatments are often ineffective, expensive, unpleasant, risky, and can be accompanied by complications. So patients tend to put off until tomorrow what they should address today … and then aggressive intervention may become necessary.

Before you read any further, test yourself

How much do you really know about your body’s vascular system? (Answers below questions)

1) Veins convey blood from the different parts of the body back to the heart. The arteries carry blood away from the heart.
A. True
B. False

A. True. The veins begin at the capillaries. From here, they eventually return all the venous blood into the heart, after the blood has nourished the tissues and taken up waste products.

2) The veins are larger and altogether more numerous than the arteries.
A. True
B. False

A. True. The entire capacity of the venous system is much greater than that of the arterial system.

3) All the veins in your body are the same size.
A. True
B. False

B. False. The veins that originate at the capillaries are very tiny venules. Small veins join to form larger ones, and finally all the venous blood in the body pours into two very large veins that open into the heart: the superior vena cava carries blood from the head and arms, and the inferior vena cava carries blood from the trunk and legs.

4) Veins are thicker and stronger than arteries.
A. True
B. False

B. False. Because veins transport blood at a lower pressure, they are not as strong as arteries. Veins are cylindrical and have three layers like arteries, but vein walls are thinner, less elastic and less muscular than those of the arteries.

5) When you look at your wrist, hands or ankles, your veins appear blue because the blood flowing through them lacks oxygen until it is exposed to the air.
A. True
B. False

B. False. The waste-rich blood that flows through the veins has a deep red, maroon color. Because the walls of the veins are thin, the waste-rich blood visible through your hands, wrists and ankles appears blue because your skin refracts light—so the deep red color of the blood actually appears a little blue from outside the skin.

6) The blood leaving your capillaries takes about 30 minutes to return to your heart.
A. True
B. False

B. False. It only takes 23 seconds for blood to be pumped from your heart to your body and back again.

7. Valves located inside the veins keeps waste-rich blood moving in the proper direction, without allowing it to flow backward.
A. True
B. False

A. True. The vein valves are necessary to keep blood flowing toward the heart, but they are also necessary to allow blood to flow against the force of gravity. They are like gates, allowing traffic to move in one direction. For example, blood that is returning to the heart from the foot has to be able to flow up the leg. Generally, the force of gravity would discourage that from happening. The vein valves, however, provide footholds for the blood as it climbs its way up.

8) A varicose vein is a damaged, bulging blue vein that appears only in the legs of older women.
A. True
B. False

B. False. Although women are three times more likely to get a varicose vein than men, a varicose vein can show up as a hemorrhoid—in both men and women—and even in the scrotum, where they are known as varicoceles.2

9) Pregnancy can trigger varicose veins in women who are predisposed to having them.
A. True
B. False

A. True. This is mainly the consequence of two things:

  • Pressure from the weight of the growing fetus in the womb can impede the flow of blood through the abdomen and force it back into the veins in the legs.
  • The expanding volume of blood in pregnant women stresses the leg veins.

10) If varicose veins run in your family, there is nothing you can do to prevent them.
A. True
B. False

B. False. Exercise, proper nutrition and nutritional supplementation can help strengthen vascular tone, improve circulation, and delay, minimize or prevent the onset of varicose veins and their complications.

The Importance of Fiber?Fiber is the parts of fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts and legumes that can’t be digested by humans. It doesn’t contain calories or nutrients to sustain growth or healing, and it isn’t found in meats or dairy products. But it’s absolutely necessary for gastrointestinal health … and apparently for vascular health. Here’s why:

There are two types of fiber, insoluble and soluble. Insoluble fiber is a coarse, chewy material that will not dissolve in water. It’s what we think of as roughage. It holds water in the colon or large intestine, and decreases the time it takes for materials to move through the colon (transit time). This is extremely important because it helps sweep out the toxins that have accumulated in your colon from undigested and unabsorbed foods. And fast elimination of toxins from your system is a key to overall health.

Soluble fiber dissolves in water. Some soluble fibers also add to fecal bulk and increase its water content. The more soluble the fiber, the more easily it is broken down—which makes its nutrients more readily available.

People who consume a high-fiber diet usually empty their colons within 35 hours of eating, whereas people who eat a fiber-depleted diet take about 77 hours. The difference is that a heavy colon filled with hard fecal matter compresses veins more than an empty colon. The more pressure put on veins in your lower trunk means the veins in your legs must work harder to drive blood back to the heart. Thus, when the leg veins have to work harder, there’s a greater risk of developing varicose veins—not to mention the hemorrhoids that often accompany constipation, which are also a result of not getting enough fiber.

Each year, approximately 2.5 million Americans are severely disabled by varicose veins. But you don’t have to be one of them. 1

In this special report, you’ll learn about the latest studies on 3 groundbreaking herbs proven to safely and effectively help treat and prevent varicose veins … so you can finally take charge of your vascular health.

What are varicose veins?

Varicose veins and hemorrhoids are painful, incapacitating and disfiguring, and mainstream doctors have few options to offer other than compression stockings or surgery.

The good news is we have the information you need to support vascular health … and prevent unsightly and painful veins!

The word varicose comes from the Latin root “varix”, which means “twisted”—and it makes sense because varicose veins look like twisted and bulging dark purple or blue cords that are raised above the surface of the skin. Any vein can become varicose, but the veins most commonly affected are those on the backs of the calves or on the inside of the leg, anywhere from the groin to the ankle—because walking and standing increases the pressure in the veins in your lower body.

Spider veins are similar to varicose veins, but they are smaller, and are usually red or blue in color, and closer to the surface of the skin. They have short jagged lines that appear as a tree branch or spider web. Spider veins can be found on both the legs and the face, and can cover either a very small or large area of skin.3

Varicose veins can have serious complications, including hemorrhaging, blood clots, phlebitis, swollen ankles, and leg ulcers.

Varicose veins called hemorrhoids are very common in both men and women, and about 50% of the population in the U.S. have hemorrhoids by age 50. Many health professionals believe they are the direct result of fiber-depleted diets. It is interesting to note that hemorrhoids are rare in Third World populations which are typically active and eat a fiber-rich diet.

Hemorrhoids: answers to the questions you were afraid to ask

Hemorrhoids may result from:

  • a fiber-depleted diet
  • straining to move stool
  • prolonged sitting on a toilet
  • pregnancy
  • aging (causes weakening of the support structures, which facilitates prolapse)
  • chronic constipation or diarrhea
  • anal intercourse

According to a recent scientific review on the subject, “hemorrhoids have plagued humankind since the dawn of history.” Unfortunately, hemorrhoid treatment has not changed much since the days of Hippocrates … thousands of years ago. It has been estimated that 50% of the population has hemorrhoids by the age of 50.5

Hemorrhoids are very common among pregnant women. The pressure of the fetus in the abdomen, as well as hormonal changes, cause the hemorrhoidal vessels to enlarge. These vessels are also placed under severe pressure during childbirth. For most women, however, hemorrhoids caused by pregnancy are a temporary problem.

It’s possible to have hemorrhoids without any symptoms. The most common symptom of internal hemorrhoids, however, is bright red blood visible on the stool, toilet paper, or in the toilet bowl.

Sometimes an internal hemorrhoid protrudes through the anus outside the body, becoming irritated and painful. This is known as a protruding hemorrhoid. Symptoms of external hemorrhoids may include painful swelling or a hard lump around the anus that results when a blood clot forms. This condition is known as a thrombosed external hemorrhoid. It is extremely painful and usually requires minor surgery.

The best way to prevent hemorrhoids is to keep stools soft so they pass easily—thus decreasing pressure and straining—and to empty bowels as soon as possible after the urge occurs. Exercising, drinking 8 to10 glasses of purified water each day, and including at least 25 grams of fiber in your diet (most Americans get between 8 and 15 grams a day) helps reduce constipation and straining by producing softer stools that are easier to pass.

Why do varicose veins form
in the first place?

Arteries are lined with muscles that contract and move blood through the body. Veins don’t have their own muscles, so they rely on large skeletal muscle movement to move blood. One-way valves keep the blood flowing in the right direction. If the one-way valve becomes weak, some of the blood can leak back into the vein, collect there, and then become congested or clogged. This congestion stretches the vein, injuring the vein lining. The swelling results in a varicose or spider vein.

The question that many doctors have is: are damaged, stretched veins the result of malfunctioning valves or do varicose veins begin in the walls of the vein as they stretch, causing the valves to malfunction? It’s the “what came first, the chicken or the egg?” dilemma.

Scientists have proposed several theories based on these facts:

  • Varicose veins are extremely rare in Third World populations who sit on the floor. When these communities become Westernized and start sitting on chairs, however, the incidence increases.6
  • Varicose veins are almost always found in the legs, indicating that gravity plays a role in the human upright position.
  • The incidence of varicose veins increases with age and seems to be influenced by diet and lifestyle.
  • Women are three times more prone to varicose veins than men, indicating that female hormones play a major role.

Heredity, a low-fiber diet, weak vein walls, malfunctioning valves in the veins, unhealthy habits, and A-V shunts (the arterio-venous connection, in which arterial blood bypasses the capillaries through an arterio-venous shunt, due to disease, injury or hormones) are all possible causes of varicose veins.

Varicose veins are rare in Third World nations

As we have already mentioned, people who sit on the floor rather than on chairs rarely have varicose veins. This theory was presented in 1913 when a doctor named Miyauchi noticed that varicose veins were rare among traditional Japanese people who sat on the floor while eating. He also noticed that when Japanese migrated and adopted a Western lifestyle, the incidence of varicosities became more common. Similar findings have been discovered in other cultures where it is traditional to sit on the floor instead of on chairs.6

Varicose veins are virtually unheard of in Third World populations that eat a diet high in fiber, and devoid of processed sugars and flours.

According to Howard Baron, M.D. and Barbara Ross, authors of Varicose Veins: A guide to prevention and treatment, “The low-fiber theory is supported by studies that have found a significant statistical correlation between varicose veins and diverticulitis, an illness in which sacs on the wall of the large bowel become inflamed. Diverticulitis is believed to be caused by constipation.”1

Symptoms associated with fiber deficiency include irregularity, constipation, high cholesterol, appendicitis, hemorrhoids, irritable bowel syndrome, colon and colorectal cancer.

Complications with varicose veins

For many people, varicose veins and spider veins are simply a cosmetic concern. For others, varicose veins can result in severe pain and serious complications. Varicose veins may also indicate a higher risk of other vascular disorders.

Varicose veins usually enlarge and worsen over time. They can cause the legs and feet to swell, and leg muscles may feel fatigued or heavy, or throb and cramp at night. Also, the skin on the legs and around the ankles can itch or burn.

In some cases, varicose veins can cause more serious problems and result in chronic venous insufficiency, a severe clogging of the blood in the veins that prevents it from returning to the heart.

Venous Insufficiency Syndrome

Veins depend on their own tone and major skeletal muscles to squeeze blood back to the heart. As blood circulation is slowed, venous blood escapes from its normal flow path and flows in a reverse direction into an already congested leg. Venous pooling takes place, and water and protein leak out. This is chronic venous insufficiency, and its mild symptoms include leg swelling, pain, soreness, burning, cramping, tiredness, itching, and “restless legs.”

Severe venous disease can result in a myriad of serious problems:

  • Phlebitis, an inflamed vein wall, is one of the most common complications of varicose veins. The onset is sudden, painful and debilitating, and should be closely monitored because it can develop into thrombophlebitis (see below).
  • Thrombophlebitis starts out like phlebitis, with a slight swelling of the calf or ankle, a dull ache, and possible weakness, fever, chills, and loss of appetite. But it is accompanied by a thrombus, which is more solid and tougher than a blood clot, which forms in a vein where the blood continues to flow and slows the flow of blood, causing it to pool. It should not be ignored because it can become a long-term serious problem.
  • Deep vein thrombosis (blood clot) can develop as a result of injury to the varicose vein. Since deep leg veins are on a straight path to your heart and lungs, these blood clots can be very dangerous because of the possibility of it traveling and blocking the heart and lungs from functioning.
  • Post-Thrombotic Syndrome is a result of deep vein thrombosis and manifests as a variety of problems including: swelling, hardening, pain and ulcers in the lower leg. This syndrome occurs because deep vein thrombosis causes permanent damage to the vein valves in the lower leg. Consequently, the valves allow venous blood to pool, causing pressure to build in the small veins of the lower leg, ankle and foot. As pressure builds, fluid seeps from the smaller vessels and capillaries, drowning layers of tissue under the skin.
  • Pulmonary embolism occurs when a clot breaks loose from a vein wall and travels through the right side of your heart through the pulmonary artery to your lung. Depending on its size, a pulmonary embolism can kill you.

According to the American Medical Association, there are 650,000 cases of pulmonary embolism in the U.S. each year, with 30% of those resulting in death. About 90% of those emboli originate in the lower extremities, mainly in veins in the calf muscle.

Why are women particularly susceptible to varicose disease?

Scientists believe that progesterone and/or estrogen stretch the veins by changing the structure of the muscle in the vein walls. This happens cyclically, and during pregnancy and menopause.

Pregnancy increases the distensibility of vein walls and softens the valves. At the same time, the veins must accommodate an increased volume of blood. Additionally, during the last trimester, the enlarged uterus compresses the inferior vena cava, causing further venous hypertension and secondary distension of leg veins. Depending on a host of factors, including genetics, varicose veins that develop during pregnancy may or may not spontaneously regress after delivery.3 Supporting vascular health before pregnancy with diet, exercise and nutritional supplements reduces the possibility of varicose veins during and after pregnancy.

The good news is there is something you can do to support the health of your veins … and prevent unsightly and painful veins.

Dietary supplementation with three botanical extracts has been shown to prevent the painful and expensive complications of hemorrhoids and varicose veins.

3 proven herbal extracts for healthy veins

Horse chestnut, Gotu kola, and Butcher’s broom have been shown to:

  • improve the appearance of your legs and ankles by reducing swelling
  • reduce cramps and tingling in legs
  • help circulation on long flights
  • alleviate heaviness in the calves
  • reduce pain
  • improve micro-circulation
  • improve capillary flow
  • improve vascular tone
  • strengthen connective tissue

1) Horse Chestnut
(Aesculus hippocastanum)

The leaves and bark of this tree were traditionally used for venous congestion symptoms, hemorrhoids, asthma, bronchitis and rheumatism. Extracts were even marketed by Eli Lilly in the 20th century. Today, the seed is used medicinally, and has been studied extensively. It is also the third most frequently prescribed botanical medicine in Germany … especially for hemorrhoids and varicose veins.

Renowned herbalist James Duke, Ph.D. reports in his book The Green Pharmacy 2 that Varro Tyler, Ph.D., Dean and Professor Emeritus of Pharmacognosy at Purdue University, singles out Horse chestnut seed as by far the most effective medicinal plant for treating varicose veins.

Active constituents
Horse chestnut seed contains a complex of triterpene saponins known collectively as escin, which has been shown to promote vascular circulation.8 It also tones veins, and reduces capillary permeability, inhibiting the leakage of water and protein into nearby tissues.

Escin also promotes normal tone in the walls of the veins by stimulating the generation and release of prostaglandins. This, in turn, helps promote the return of blood to the heart.9

Clinical studies
Escin has been clinically shown to significantly benefit chronic venous insufficiency, hemorrhoids and post-operative edema. 10Both topical and internal Horse chestnut extracts are popular in Europe for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins. Escin is also an anti-inflammatory and has been shown to reduce edema (swelling with fluid) following trauma, especially after sports injury, surgery, and head injury.811

More than 100 papers have been written on Horse chestnut. A 1996 study conducted by 800 German physicians treated more than 5,000 patients with the symptoms of pain, tiredness, tension and swelling in the leg, as well as itching and the tendency towards edema. By the end of the study, all the symptoms had improved markedly or disappeared completely.12

Numerous other studies have examined the safety and effectiveness of Horse chestnut, and have found that it surpasses placebo and other drugs for treating pain and swelling, and is compatible with compression stockings for helping symptoms associated with chronic venous insufficiency.{ref12-16}

Those suffering from post-surgery edema have also found relief from topical application of Horse chestnut extracts, according to preliminary studies.17

2) Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica)

This herb has been used in India and Indonesia for thousands of years to heal wounds and relieve leprosy. Gotu kola should not be confused with kola nut (Cola Nitida), an active ingredient in cola drinks that contains caffeine. Gotu kola contains no caffeine and is not a stimulant.

Recent studies show that Gotu kola’s extract supports vascular problems in the lower limbs, including venous insufficiency, varicose veins, and edema in the feet and ankles.

Active constituents
The primary active constituents of Gotu kola are triterpenoids, which include asiaticoside, madecassic acid and asiatic acid.18 These compounds have been shown to aid in wound healing by increasing the concentration of antioxidants and restoring inflamed tissues by increasing blood supply. Because of these properties, Gotu kola has been traditionally used topically for burns, psoriasis, and the prevention of scar formation following surgery.

Clinical studies
The herb’s ability to improve vein health is well supported by human studies. A series of studies published in the International Journal of Angiology in October 2001 tested Gotu kola’s ability to improve vascular health. In one study, researchers gave 40 patients with venous hypertension (thought to be a precursor to varicose veins) either a placebo or 120 mg of Gotu kola extract daily. After six weeks, the patients who took the herb experienced a significant reduction in leg swelling and improved blood flow.19

In another test on human cell cultures, Gotu kola extract was shown to be especially significant for strengthening the collagen lining of vein walls, and reducing edema and venous hypertension.20

In a study in which Gotu kola extract was given to subjects who took a medium-to-long flight, the group that took the extract had less edema and leg discomfort than the control group, which didn’t take anything.21

And in a study of 40 people with venous hypertension, those who took Gotu kola extract for 6 weeks reported a significant improvement in microcirculation and edema.22

Additionally, in his book The Healing Power of Herbs, Michael T. Murray, N.D. reports that in other clinical trials, 80 percent of patients reported improvement in spider veins, leg ulcers, blood flow, and feelings of heaviness in the lower legs, numbing and tingling sensations, and night cramps.23

3. Butcher’s Broom (Ruscus aculeatus)

This herb is a member of the lily family, and native to southern and western Europe and the southern U.S. Although its name comes from its use as a broom that butchers used to sweep their cutting blocks, the herb has a long history of treating venous problems like varicose veins and hemorrhoids.

Active constituents
It contains important flavonoids, and two anti-inflammatory compounds,2425 ruscogenin and neoruscogenin, that strengthen and tone the veins, and act as mild diuretics.9 They may also lead to constriction of the veins which helps blood return from the extremities.

Clinical studies
Both animal and human studies indicate that Butcher’s broom extract is beneficial in the management of venous insufficiency. One meta-analysis (a statistical analysis that summarizes the results of many studies) published in the September 2003 issue of International Angiology, included 20 placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind studies and 5 randomized studies using Cyclo 3 Fort, a combination of Butcher’s broom extract, ascorbic acid and Hesperidin Methyl Chalcone—a natural flavonoid extract of citrus fruit—vs. placebo.

Cyclo 3 Fort significantly reduced the severity of pain, cramps, heaviness, edema, and tingling sensations in the lower extremities when compared to placebo.26

Another study of 166 women with a 14 to 15 year history of venous insufficiency showed that those who were treated with Butcher’s broom extract experienced a significant improvement in edema, and a decrease in sensations of heaviness and tingling in the lower legs, when compared to the group treated with a placebo.27

All three of the mentioned herbal extracts, Horse chestnut, Butcher’s broom, Gotu kola, were also shown to help prevent hemorrhoids.28

Will these botanical extracts make the varicose veins in my legs disappear?

We can’t promise miracles, but if you start using these herbs early, they can help prevent problems from occurring later. And if your legs are already disfigured, the extracts will help reduce edema—which will improve their appearance.

The most important thing to remember is this: Horse chestnut, Butcher’s broom, and Gotu kola will help stop your varicose veins from getting worse, and that’s priceless … because down the road varicose veins are a medical condition—not just a cosmetic nuisance—that can lead to serious complications.


Although no adverse effects have been found from Horse chestnut, Gotu kola or Butcher’s broom, they should not be taken by pregnant and lactating women, or children, without the recommendation of a health practitioner.


The extracts of Horse chestnut, Gotu kola and Butcher’s broom offer safe and effective support and nourishment for healthy veins. When combined with a healthy diet and lifestyle, these nutrients offer an excellent addition, and/or alternative to the modalities available for treating the painful symptoms associated with varicose veins and hemorrhoids. If you have the tendency toward varicose veins or hemorrhoids, don’t wait until it’s too late to reverse a potentially dangerous situation. Nourish your vascular system now by taking proven nutrients that strengthen and tone your veins … and minimize the appearance of unsightly varicose and spider veins.


  1. Baron, Howard C., M.D., Ross, Barbara A. Varicose Veins: A Guide to Prevention and Treatment. Facts on File, Inc. New York, NY. 1995.
  2. Duke, James A., Ph.D. The Green Pharmacy. St. Martin’s Press, NY, 1997.
  3. The National Women’s Health Information Center,
  4. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse
  5. Orlay G. Haemorrhoids—a review. Aust Fam Physician. 2003 Jul;32(7):523-6.
  6. Alexander C.J. “Chair-sitting and varicose veins.” Lancet 1972 ; 1 : 822.
  7. Kamen, Betty. New Facts About Fiber. Nutrition Encounter, Inc., Novato, CA, 1991.
  8. Guillaume M, Padioleau F. Venotonic effect, vascular protection, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties of horse chestnut extract. Arzneim-Forsch Drug Res 1994;44:25-35.
  9. Presser, Arthur M. Pharmacist’s Guide to Medicinal Herbs. Smart Publications, Petaluma, CA, 2000.
  10. Sirtori CR. Pharmacol Res. 2001 Sep;44(3):183-93.
  11. Calabrese C, Preston P. Report of the results of a double-blind, randomized, single-dose trial of a topical 2% escin gel versus placebo in the acute treatment of experimentally-induced hematoma in volunteers. Planta Med 1993;59:394-7.
  12. K, Pohlmann BK. Horse chestnut seed extract—an effective therapy principle in general practice. Drug therapy of chronic venous insufficiency (article in German) Fortschr Med. 1996 May 30;114(15):196-200.
    1. Diehm C, Trampisch HJ, Lange S, Schmidt C. Comparison of leg compression stocking and oral horse chestnut seed extract therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Lancet. 1996 Feb 3;347(8997):292-4.
  13. Ottillinger B, Greeske K. Rational therapy of chronic venous insufficiency—chances and limits of the therapeutic use of horse chestnut seeds extract. BMC Cardiovasc Disord.2001;1(1):5. Epub 2001 Dec 07.

  14. Siebert U, Brach M, Sroczynski G, Berla K. Efficacy, routine effectiveness, and safety of horse chestnut seed extract in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and large observational studies. Int Angiol. 2002 Dec;21(4):305-15.

  15. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Horse Chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency: A criteria-based systematic review. Arch Dermatol 1998;134:1356-60.
  16. Wilhelm K, Felmeier C. Thermometric investigations about the efficacy of beta-escin to reduce postoperative edema. Med Klin 1977;72:128-34 [in German].
  17. Kartnig T. Clinical applications of Centella asiatica (L) Urb. In Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, and Pharmacology, vol. 3., Craker LE, Simon JE (eds). Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1986, 145-73.
  18. Incandela L, et al. Total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica in the treatment of venous hypertension: a clinical, prospective, randomized trial using a combined microcirculatory model. Angiology. 2001 Oct;52 Suppl 2:S61-7.
  19. Incandela L, Cesarone MR, Cacchio M, De Sanctis MT, Santavenere C, D’Auro MG, Bucci M, Belcaro G. Total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica in chronic venous insufficiency and in high-perfusion microangiopathy. Angiology. 2001 Oct;52 Suppl 2:S9-13.

  20. Cesarone MR,, et al. Flight microangiopathy in medium- to long-distance flights: prevention of edema and microcirculation alterations with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica. Angiology. 2001 Oct;52 Suppl 2:S33-7.
  21. Cesarone MR, et al. Microcirculatory effects of total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica in chronic venous hypertension: measurement by laser Doppler, TcPO2-CO2, and leg volumetry. Angiology. 2001 Oct;52 Suppl 2:S45-8.
  22. Murray MT. The Healing Power of Herbs. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 1995, 180.
  23. Bouskela E, Cyrino FZ, Marcelon G. Inhibitory effect of the Ruscus extract and of the flavonoid hesperidine methylchalcone on increased microvascular permeability induced by various agents in the hamster cheek pouch. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1993;22:225-30.
  24. Bouskela E, Cyrino FZ, Marcelon G. Effects of Ruscus extract on the internal diameter of arterioles and venules of the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1993;22:221-4.
  25. Boyle P, Diehm C, Robertson C. Meta-analysis of clinical trials of Cyclo 3 Fort in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Int Angiol. 2003 Sep;22(3):250-62.
  26. Vanscheidt W, et al. Efficacy and safety of a Butcher’s broom preparation (Ruscus aculeatus L. extract) compared to placebo in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency. Arzneimittelforschung. 2002;52(4):243-50.
  27. MacKay D. Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: a review of treatment options. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Apr;6(2):126-40.

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