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GPC: The New Choline That Enhances Your Mental Function Now ...

While Helping to Repair Brain Cell Membranes for Long Term Health

  • Improve immediate recall, reaction time, and mood
  • Protect delicate brain cells and membranes
  • Support optimal brain function
  • Help counteract cognitive impairment such as: Alzheimer's disease, brain injuries, stroke, vascular dementia, and Parkinson's disease

GPC: The new choline that enhances cognition in the young, middle-aged, and elderly

We are continually learning about how the brain functions, environmental and dietary factors that contribute to brain aging—and enhancement—and how it's possible to increase your intelligence and sensory perception beyond the predictors of aging, genetics, and IQ tests.

Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC), a form of choline, is an exciting nutrient recently developed as a cognitive enhancer. But GPC is not the ordinary form of choline we've been hearing about (or even taking) for years. GPC is a source of phospholipids (the prime building blocks of life) and choline, which is utilized for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in the brain, and for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine—one of the chemicals that enable brain cells to communicate with each other. Although GPC has all the benefits of choline, it is much more effective at increasing acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine production.

Acetylcholine is essential for cognitive function, and is responsible for storing and recalling memories. It is vital for communication between neurons, and in two Italian studies supplementation with GPC indicated an increase in brain function directly related to a healthy supply of acetylcholine.

In the two controlled trials, daily doses of 1200 mg of GPC improved the immediate recall and attention in a group of young adult males (ages 19-38) compared with a placebo.12 In middle-aged and elderly subjects, GPC supplementation improved reaction time by supporting energy generation and electrical coordination in the brain.34 

In studies of older patients with vascular dementia, 1200 mg per day of GPC helped improve cognition, as well as emotional state, confusion, and apathy.5

Why is choline important to brain functioning?

Choline is the important B vitamin that fuels tissue renewal and helps build acetylcholine. It is so vital to thought and nerve function that, without it, we couldn't move, think, sleep or remember anything.

Choline is also responsible for synthesizing phosphatidylcholine (PC), a component of the membrane of every cell in your body, including brain cells. In addition to its role as a structural element in cell membranes, PC acts as a choline reservoir for synthesizing more acetylcholine when needed.6 

Because phosphatidylcholine is a common component of cell membranes, it is distributed throughout the body. Also, as we age, choline levels decline and it is unable to get into the brain efficiently.78 For years, lecithin was a popular supplement thought to supply choline, but a review of randomized trials did not find lecithin to be more beneficial than placebo in the treatment of patients with dementia or cognitive impairment.9 

GPC is a "next generation" supplement that effectively supplies choline, stimulates membrane repair and benefits cognitive function.

GPC has been proven extremely effective, both in the elderly for brain decline linked to poor circulation and Alzheimer's disease, and for enhancing mental performance in healthy young adults.

GPC has been shown to:

  • Help brain recovery following injury, coma, and surgery
  • Improve memory and cognitive performance in patients with Alzheimer's dementia 10 
  • Improve memory and learning ability in laboratory animals111213 
  • Counteract brain aging in rats by increasing cholinergic receptor sites,1415 restoring the bioavailability of acetylcholine,1617 increasing nerve growth factor receptors in the brain,18 and slowing down undesirable structural changes in the brain1920 
  • Counter the age-related loss of nerve cells and fibers in the brain
  • Protect the brain and other organs against toxic waste buildup
  • Increase growth hormone secretion in both the young and the old2122 
  • Support patients recovering from cerebral ischemic attacks23 
  • Increase the release of dopamine, the neurotransmitter that plays a major role in Parkinson's disease2425

How does GPC work?

GPC is water-soluble and after it is ingested it quickly enters the brain, where it protects neurons and improves signal transmission, and supports brain function and learning processes by directly increasing the synthesis and secretion of acetylcholine, as your body needs it. Instead of being a precursor to phosphatidylcholine (PC), GPC is actually a metabolite of PC.

In other words, after phosphatidylcholine is metabolized and stripped of its fatty acids, GPC—a glycerin molecule bound to phosphocholine—is what remains. This is a source of choline in the same form that a cell would obtain from scavenging its own membranes. And this is exactly the form of choline that neurons prefer to use for synthesizing acetylcholine during times of choline scarcity.

Also, GPC is very good at repairing and maintaining brain cell membranes. What most people don't understand is that a cell membrane is living fluid. If you were able to watch the activity in a cell membrane in real time, it would be like watching a fireworks display with a million things happening at once. Neurotransmitters are released through the membrane, which needs to be instantly repaired. As we age, the mechanism that allows the membrane to be repaired becomes compromised, which is another reason to take GPC as a nutritional supplement.

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Editor's Note:

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These articles are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Always consult with a physician before embarking on a dietary supplement program.


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  51.  "Race Against Time: Alzheimer's Epidemic Hits as America Ages" News Release, 3-27-2000.

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